Awqaf (also spelled Awkaf, singular waqf/wakf) is an Arabic word meaning assets that are donated, bequeathed, or purchased for being held in perpetual trust for general or specific charitable causes socially beneficial. In many ways, the concept of waqf is similar to the Western idea of the endowment. The strong emphasis placed on the infinity of awqaf has led, over the years, to a considerable accumulation of societal wealth. Awqaf has become an important economic sector dedicated to improving socio-economic welfare.
Waqf in Muslim Law
Islam gave the endowment system great importance, which made everyone race to collect their reward by various means. Waqf is a way to serve the world with true religion. To preserve humanity by protecting society from:
- Dangers of malice.
- Spreading chaos.
With the spread of theft and forced robbery, the endowment was to dry up the sources of crimes that occur because of the need of the needy; It forces him to deviate and pushes him to commit what God Almighty has forbidden.
Islam has made the endowment protection for society, a reason for cohesion among its members, and a way to spread outrage and hatred by instilling factors of cooperation and solidarity, all of which are obligations that obligate the endowment guarantor of the sanctity of private money; The one who goes to the rich, and he preserves the spirit of the needy from:
Therefore, there are many aspects of righteousness and charitable work and the types of spending put in their places.
Importance of Waqf in Islam
Waqf is an important institution in the Islamic social framework. It can harness the potential of selfless charitable giving in an effective way for better economic impact in the targeted social segments of society.
Waqf in Qur’an and Hadith
The jurists inferred the legitimacy of the endowment with the generality of the texts urging charity, including the Almighty’s saying: “And those, who, when they spend, are neither extravagant nor niggardly, but hold a medium (way) between those (extremes).” (Al-Furqan, 67).
And Ibn Katheer said: “The Almighty commanded to have faith in Him and His Messenger most totally, and to persevere and steadfastly adhere to that and to continue, and urged spending from what made you heirs in it, i.e., what is with you on a matter of shame, for it was in the hands of those before you and then became to you, so God guides you to use What he entrusted them with from the money in his obedience if they do, otherwise he will hold them accountable and punish them for neglecting their duties in it.”.
Types of Waqf in Islam
The types of Waqf in Islam are:
- The National Waqf (Atomic): What is provided for the benefit of specific individuals or their offspring, whether from relatives or offspring (children, grandchildren, descendants, and relatives) or other poor people, and is based on withholding the eye and giving its proceeds to the donor himself and his offspring after him or others on conditions determined by the endower, for example, the endowment may require that the endowment be deferred to A charitable endowment after the interruption of the detainees (in this case it is considered a civil endowment, starting from a charitable fund).
- Charitable Waqf: Or the general endowment, which is what the endower intends to spend the proceeds of the endowment to the extraordinary destinations that are not interrupted, whether they are specific such as the poor and needy, or public charitable bodies such as mosques, schools, hospitals, and so on. It is a special endowment for that which the benefit is made for one or more good deeds, and for all that is spent on it is an act of worship to God the Highest.
- The joint Waqf: is mixed between the two things, or it may start as a civil endowment, then it ends up becoming a charitable endowment after the interruption of those who benefit from it from the offspring of the endowment, and all of this is the condition of the endowment.
Valid Objects of Waqf
The Waqf has many valid, including:
- Waqf of Waqf – Waqf of Masjids and their sponsorship and the conduct of their affairs and providing them with the Quran
- Waqf for jihad in the cause of Allah.
- Waqf on the distribution of clothing to the poor, widows and the needy.
- Waqf on public libraries to stop legal books in them.
- Waqf for schools that have been completed free of charge and education for Muslim children.
- Drilling water wells.
- Waqf for preachers.
- Waqf on spreading the call to monotheism and spreading Islam; By printing and distributing books and tapes.
- Waqf centers for new converts.
- Building orphanage centers and taking care of them.
- Waqf on helpful research papers.
- Waqf on the groups for memorizing the Qur’an with which Allah has benefited the children of Muslims.
- Waqf for women’s Quran memorization schools.
- Waqf on the information network (Internet).
inalienable charitable endowment under Islamic law. It typically involves donating a building, plot of land, or other assets for Muslim religious or charitable purposes with no intention of reclaiming the assets.
The charitable endowment is one of Waqf kindes and it is what is allocated from real estate and funds to various land entities such as:
- Security and other care.
As for the civilWaqf, it is for Muslims to set up endowments from their property for the benefit of their offspring first, and then for the common good after that.
It can harness the potential of selfless charitable giving in an effective way for better economic impact in the targeted social segments of society.
the first who defined the waqf law was Prophet Muhammad. Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) donated the land for the construction of the masjid.
1- The National Waqf (Atomic).
2- Charitable Waqf.
3-The joint Waqf.
No, Wakf property can’t be sold.