When a person takes a responsibility to raise a child or young adult because their biological parents are no longer with them for one reason or another.
Adoption in Islam
There is Permissible and Forbidden types of adoption in Islam.
- The forbidden is adopting a child and making him a member of the family by birth and being subject to the rulings on children.
“…nor has He made your adopted sons your real sons…” [al-Ahzab 33:4]
- The permissible is being kind to the adopted child, giving them a decent life, and teaching them about Islam.
If the child were two years old or less and took his breastfed by the adoptive mother for at least one day and a night, the child will be Mahram for his new family.
If the child was older than two years and h didn’t take breastfed by the mother, he won’t be Mahram for the family.
Sponsoring an Orphan Definition
Sponsoring an orphan in Islam is to include an orphan, spend on him, and take care of his interests and affairs.
Many Hadith about sponsoring an orphan that our beloved the Prophet Mohammad said.
The Messenger of Allah (saw) said, ‘The best house among the Muslims is the house in which orphans are well-treated. The worst house among the Muslims is the house in which orphans are ill-treated’. [Bukhari]
The Guardian/Child Relationship
In Islam, many rules about the guardian/child relationship make the relationship different from adopting a child in other cultures. Adoption in Islam has a different name, “Kafalah,” which means adoption but without…
Family Name (Surname)
In Islamic Kafalah, it is illegal to change the child’s family name or cut down his family ties. Because the adoptive family can’t take the place of the biological family, they act as guardians and are responsible for the care of another person’s child. Allah Ultimity told us in the Quran how he doesn’t leave the orphans or in need alone:
Did He not find you an orphan and shelter you? And He found you wandering, and He guided you. And He found you in need and made you independent. Therefore, treat not the orphan with harshness, nor drive away a petitioner (unheard). But the bounty of the Lord – rehearse and proclaim! (Quran 93:6-11)
The child who took with Kafalah does not inherit from the family who sponsors him because Kafalah is not one of the reasons for an inheritance, so there is no inheritance between the sponsor and the adopted child. But it is permissible for the sponsor to write something of his wealth to the adopted child during his life. And this is as a gift during life, or as a will after death, and not as a way of inheritance.
Adoptive Family Members
As we mentioned before, If the child was adopted before or during he was two years old and taken from the adoptive mother breastfed, he could be a member of the family because he would be Mahram to the mother and sisters. However, he was older than two years and didn’t take from his adoptive mother’s breastfed; he wouldn’t be Mahram.
In conclusion, the forbidden rules in adoption in Islam are three:
- Cutting down the family ties.
- The transference of inheritance rights.
- Changing the child’s family name.
And as for the child to be one of the family members, he has to be fed by the adoptive mother breastfed.
Is it Halal to Adopt a Child in Islam?
No, it isn’t halal to adopt a child in Islam, but as an alternative, there is Kafalah in Islam that allows adopting a child under specific rules.
What Does Islam Say About Orphans?
“Righteousness in the sight of God… dwells in one who, despite his love for it, gives of his wealth in charity to close relatives and orphans and to the needy and the wayfarer, and beggars and for the emancipation of slaves.” (Surat Al-Baqarah, 2:177)
Can I Breastfeed my Adopted Baby in Islam?
Yes. You can.
Is Fostering Allowed in Islam?
Yes. It is.